第四章回目錄

My Inventions
尼古拉.特斯拉回憶錄(我的創作生涯)

V. The Magnifying Transmitter
第五章 放大發射機

這是特斯拉所設計的放大發射機(The Magnifying Transmitter;又稱Tesla Tower
在紐約長島(Long Island)完成後的規劃圖。(資料來源:
The Tesla Collaction

As I review the events of my past life I realize how subtle are the influences that shape our destinies. An incident of my youth may serve to illustrate. One winter's day I managed to climb a steep mountain, in company with other boys. The snow was quite deep and a warm southerly wind made it just suitable for our purpose. We amused ourselves by throwing balls which would roll down a certain distance, gathering more or less snow, and we tried to outdo one another in this exciting sport. Suddenly a ball was seen to go beyond the limit, swelling to enormous proportions until it became as big as a house and plunged thundering into the valley below with a force that made the ground tremble. I looked on spellbound, incapable of understanding what had happened. For weeks afterward the picture of the avalanche was before my eyes and I wondered how anything so small could grow to such an immense size. Ever since that time the magnification of feeble actions fascinated me, and when, years later, I took up the experimental study of mechanical and electrical resonance, I was keenly interested from the very start. Possibly, had it not been for that early powerful impression, I might not have followed up the little spark I obtained with my coil and never developed my best invention, the true history of which I'll tell here for the first time. 

回顧以往的人生經歷,我發現影響人們命運的力量是多麼的微妙。我少年時期的一次經歷可以說明這一問題。某年冬季的一天,我打算和夥伴們去爬一座陡峭的高山。儘管山上的積雪還很深,但當時刮著溫和的南風,天氣非常適合爬山。我們自娛自樂地玩著擲雪球”遊戲,雪球投出去之後會往下滾動一段距離,並或多或少地沾上點兒雪,以距離遠近判斷勝負。突然,一個雪球越滾越大,超出了極限,直到變得跟一所房子一樣,伴隨著巨大的轟鳴聲,以雷霆萬鈞之勢沖進山谷,整個地面都開始顫抖。我目瞪口呆地看著,完全不明白這到底是怎麼回事。幾周以後,當我看到刊載著雪崩圖片的報紙時,禁不住問,那麼小的雪球怎麼會變得如此巨大
自從那次事件之後,我開始對微弱力量放大問題著迷幾年之後,當我著手進行機械和電氣共振試驗與研究時,從一開始就充滿了濃厚的興趣,大概與此有著直接的關係。或許,如果不是因為兒時那次雪崩給我留下的強烈印象,我可能不會對我線圈中出現的微小火花進行刨根問底式的研究,那麼也就不可能實現我最偉大的發明了。關於這段經歷,我稍後就會講到。

"Lionhunters" have often asked me which of my discoveries I prize most. This depends on the point of view. Not a few technical men, very able in their special departments, but dominated by a pedantic spirit and nearsighted, have asserted that excepting the induction motor I have given to the world little of practical use. This is a grievous mistake. A new idea must not be judged by its immediate results. My alternating system of power transmission came at a psychological moment, as a long-sought answer to pressing industrial questions, and altho considerable resistance had to be overcome and opposing interests reconciled, as usual, the commercial introduction could not be long delayed. Now, compare this situation with that confronting my turbine, for example. One should think that so simple and beautiful an invention, possessing many features of an ideal motor, should be adopted at once and, undoubtedly, it would under similar conditions. But the prospective effect of the rotating field was not to render worthless existing machinery; on the contrary, it was to give it additional value. The system lent itself to new enterprise as well as to improvement of the old. My turbine is an advance of a character entirely different. It is a radical departure in the sense that its success would mean the abandonment of the antiquated types of prime movers on which billions of dollars have been spent. Under such circumstances the progress must needs be slow and perhaps the greatest impediment is encountered in the prejudicial opinions created in the minds of experts by organized opposition. 

那些愛吹捧拍馬的人(Lionhunters)經常問我,哪些發明是我認為最珍貴的。這要看從哪種觀點來看。有很多技術人員,非常擅長處理自己專業領域的問題,但是思想迂腐,目光短淺。他們認為,除了感應電動機之外,我再也沒有給世界留下什麼有實際價值的東西。這是極其嚴重的錯誤想法。要判斷一個新概念的價值,絕對不能以當時的直接效果為依據。我的交流發電與傳輸系統出現在一個最佳時刻,為很久以來亟待解決的工業問題提供了正確答案。儘管還有相當多的阻力需要克服,各方利益也需要協調,但是像很多發明一樣,商業推廣已經勢在必行,不能再拖延下去了。這種情況就和我發明渦輪機之後的一些經歷十分相似。有人可能認為,我的發明那麼簡單、漂亮,具有理想發電機的眾多優秀特徵,應該馬上投人推廣利用。但是,這一過程和我前面的經歷很相似,也遭遇了不少波折。但是,旋轉磁場的預期效應不但不會讓已有的設備遭到淘汰,反之,它還會給這些設備提供使用價值。這個系統既適用於新企業,也可以促進老企業設備的更新換代。我的渦輪機以嶄新的面貌大大推動了世界的發展。如果認為這種新設備的成功意味著要拋棄人們已經投人幾百億美元購置的原始機型,那是一種極端錯誤的觀點。在這種情況下,它的推廣和發展必須循序漸進或許最大的障礙可能來自某些心存偏見的專家有組織的阻撓

Only the other day I had a disheartening experience when I met my friend and former assistant, Charles F. Scott, now professor of Electrical Engineering at Yale. I had not seen him for a long time and was glad to have an opportunity for a little chat at my office. Our conversation naturally enough drifted on my turbine and I became heated to a high degree. "Scott," I exclaimed, carried away by the vision of a glorious future, "my turbine will scrap all the heat-engines in the world." Scott stroked his chin and looked away thoughtfully, as though making a mental calculation. "That will make quite a pile of scrap," he said, and left without another word!

就在前些日子,發生了一件令人沮喪的事情。我的一位朋友査爾斯.斯科特Charles F. Scott)來到我的辦公室。他曾經是我的助手,現在是耶魯大學Yale)電子工程系教授。我們好長時間沒有見面了,所以我很想和他盡情地聊一聊。很快,話題扯到了渦輪機上,我開始變得非常激動。斯科特。”我大聲說道,仿佛看到了輝煌的未來,我的渦輪機將讓世界上所有的熱力發電機成為廢銅爛鐵。”斯科特用手撫摸著下巴,若有所思地把臉轉了過去,仿佛在盤算著什麼。那會出現如山的廢料。”他說道,並且沒再多說一句話就離開了!

These and other inventions of mine, however, were nothing more than steps forward in certain directions. In evolving them I simply followed the inborn sense to improve the present devices without any special thought of our far more imperative necessities. The "Magnifying Transmitter" was the product of labors extending through years, having for their chief object the solution of problems which are infinitely more important to mankind than mere industrial development. 

不過,我的這些乃至其他一些發明都是在現有技術基礎上在某些方面的改進而已。在改進這些設備或技術的過程中,我只是在自己與生俱來的本能作用推動下,對已有設備進行改造,沒有考慮任何更加長遠的需求然而,放大發射機Magnifying Transmitter)的研究持續了多年,其主要目標更多是為了解決人類的長遠需求,而不僅僅是為了促進工業發展

If my memory serves me right, it was in November, 1890, that I performed a laboratory experiment which was one of the most extraordinary and spectacular ever recorded in the annals of science. In investigating the behaviour of high frequency currents I had satisfied myself that an electric field of sufficient intensity could be produced in a room to light up electrodeless vacuum tubes. Accordingly, a transformer was built to test the theory and the first trial proved a marvelous success. It is difficult to appreciate what those strange phenomena meant at that time. We crave for new sensations but soon become indifferent to them. The wonders of yesterday are today common occurrences. When my tubes were first publicly exhibited they were viewed with amazement impossible to describe. From all parts of the world I received urgent invitations and numerous honors and other flattering inducements were offered to me, which I declined. But in 1892 the demands became irresistible and I went to London where I delivered a lecture before the Institution of Electrical Engineers.

如果我沒有記錯的話,189011月,我進行了一項最特別、最壯觀的試驗,《科學》對其進行了特別報導。在研究高頻電流現象的過程中,我很高興地發現,一定空間內足夠強度的電場可以點亮無極真空管接著,為了驗證這一理論,我們增加了一台變壓器,並在第一次測試中獲得了巨大的成功。當時,我們很難評估這些奇怪現象的意義。我們總是渴望新的轟動效應,然而不久便會淡漠昨天的奇跡在今天就會被人們視為十分尋常的現象當我的真空管第一次公開展出時,人們錯愕驚異的神情簡直難以描述。無數言辭懇切的邀請函雪片般地朝我湧來,此外還有無數的榮譽和難以抗拒的誘惑,但是我都一一拒絕了。直到1892年,在實在無法推脫的情況下,我來到倫敦,在英國電氣工程師學會做了一次演講

It had been my intention to leave immediately for Paris in compliance with a similar obligation, but Sir James Dewar insisted on my appearing before the Royal Institution. I was a man of firm resolve but succumbed easily to the forceful arguments of the great Scotsman. He pushed me into a chair and poured out half a glass of a wonderful brown fluid which sparkled in all sorts of iridescent colors and tasted like nectar. "Now," said he. "you are sitting in Faraday's chair and you are enjoying whiskey he used to drink." In both aspects it was an enviable experience. The next evening I gave a demonstration before that Institution, at the termination of which Lord Rayleigh addressed the audience and his generous words gave me the first start in these endeavors. I fled from London and later from Paris to escape favors showered upon me, and journeyed to my home where I passed through a most painful ordeal and illness. Upon regaining my health I began to formulate plans for the resumption of work in America. Up to that time I never realized that I possessed any particular gift of discovery but Lord Rayleigh, whom I always considered as an ideal man of science, had said so and if that was the case I felt that I should concentrate on some big idea. 

演講結束後,我本打算立即趕往巴黎再進行一次類似的演講。但是,詹姆斯杜瓦爵士(Sir James De-war)堅持要求我去皇家學會Royal Institution)作報告。我是個意志堅定的人,但在這位偉大的蘇格蘭人苦口婆心的勸說下,我屈服了。他把我推到一把椅子裡,給我倒了半杯奇妙的褐色飲料。那種飲料閃爍著五彩斑斕的光芒,品嘗起來如瓊漿玉液一般。現在。”詹姆斯說道,“你正坐在法拉第Faraday)曾經坐過的椅子上,喝著他愛喝的威士卡。”(我對此並不十分感興趣,因為我已經不喜歡烈酒了。)於是,第二天晚上,我在皇家學會做了演講。結束的時候,瑞利勳爵(Lord Rayleigh)向聽眾們致辭,他的慷慨陳詞給了我極大的動力。我從倫敦“逃”到了巴黎,為了躲避人們的追捧,又從巴黎回到了家鄉在家鄉的那段時間,我飽受了痛苦的考驗和疾病的折磨
恢復健康之後,我馬上制訂計畫,繼續美國的研究工作直到那時為止,我從來沒有意識到自己擁有任何卓越的發明天賦但是,瑞利勳爵卻這樣稱讚我,我一直認為他是一名傑出的物理學家如果這是事實的話,我覺得自己應該把精力集中在一些重大的研究專案上

One day, as I was roaming in the mountains, I sought shelter from an approaching storm. The sky became overhung with heavy clouds but somehow the rain was delayed until, all of a sudden, there was a lightning flash and a few moments after a deluge. This observation set me thinking. It was manifest that the two phenomena were closely related, as cause and effect, and a little reflection led me to the conclusion that the electrical energy involved in the precipitation of the water was inconsiderable, the function of lightning being much like that of a sensitive trigger. 

一天,我正在山間漫步,暴風雨即將來臨,於是我尋找著可以避雨的地方。天空被厚厚的雲層籠罩,但是雨水卻遲遲沒有落下。突然,一道閃電在空中劃過,片刻之後,傾盆大雨從天而降。眼前的情景讓我陷入了深思。顯然,閃電和傾盆大雨這兩種現象之間存在著必然的聯繫,或者更加確切地說,是因和果的關係。片刻思索之後,我意識到,降水過程中蘊含著令人難以想像的巨大電能,閃電的功能完全就像一個釋放這種巨大能量的觸發器

Here was a stupendous possibility of achievement. If we could produce electric effects of the required quality, this whole planet and the conditions of existence on it could be transformed. The sun raises the water of the oceans and winds drive it to distant regions where it remains in a state of most delicate balance. If it were in our power to upset it when and wherever desired, this mighty life-sustaining stream could be at will controlled. We could irrigate arid deserts, create lakes and rivers and provide motive power in unlimited amounts. This would be the most efficient way of harnessing the sun to the uses of man. The consummation depended on our ability to develop electric forces of the order of those in nature. It seemed a hopeless undertaking, but I made up my mind to try it and immediately on my return to the United States, in the Summer of 1892, work was begun which was to me all the more attractive, because a means of the same kind was necessary for the successful transmission of energy without wires. 

這一認識有可能導致一項極為偉大的發明如果我們可以製造出某種特定品質的電能效應,那麼我們生活的這個星球和所有生靈的生存條件就會發生根本性轉變陽光使海水蒸騰,風力又將水蒸氣運送到遙遠的地方,並在那裡保持著一種微妙的平衡如果我們有能力在需要的時間和地點干涉這種平衡,我們就能根據自己的意願控制這種強大的生命延續所需要的能量這樣,我們就能灌溉乾旱的沙漠,人為創造河流和湖泊,提供無窮的動力對於人類來說,這是利用太陽能量最為有效的方法這一構想成功的關鍵在於,我們是否有能力製造出與自然界同一量級的電力
這似乎是一項希望渺茫的計畫,但是我下定決心努力嘗試。1892年夏天,在英格蘭沃特福德Watford)短暫會見了朋友之後,我馬上返回了美國。我對這個項目充滿了濃厚的興趣,因為如果成功,它還可以用來以無線方式傳輸能量

The first gratifying result was obtained in the spring of the succeeding year when I reached tensions of about 1,000,000 volts with my conical coil. That was not much in the light of the present art, but it was then considered a feat. Steady progress was made until the destruction of my laboratory by fire in 1895, as may be judged from an article by T. C. Martin which appeared in the April number of the Century Magazine. This calamity set me back in many ways and most of that year had to be devoted to planning and reconstruction. However, as soon as circumstances permitted, I returned to the task. 

在第二年的春天,我取得了第一個可喜的成就。我利用我的圓錐形線圈製造出了100萬伏電壓我認為這是發生閃電所需要的電壓。我的研究進展一直都很順利。但是,1895年,我的實驗室在火災中毀於一旦。讀者可以從《世紀雜誌》(Centuiy Magazine)同年4月份刊載的T.C.馬丁T.C. Martin)的一篇文章中獲得相關資訊。這場災難給我在許多方面帶來了慘重損失,那年的大部分時間我都用來重新規劃和重建實驗室。不管怎樣,條件具備以後,我又馬上投入了工作。

Although I knew that higher electro-motive forces were attainable with apparatus of larger dimensions, I had an instinctive perception that the object could be accomplished by the proper design of a comparatively small and compact transformer. In carrying on tests with a secondary in the form of a flat spiral, as illustrated in my patents, the absence of streamers surprised me, and it was not long before I discovered that this was due to the position of the turns and their mutual action. Profiting from this observation I resorted to the use of a high tension conductor with turns of considerable diameter sufficiently separated to keep down the distributed capacity, while at the same time preventing undue accumulation of the charge at any point. The application of this principle enabled me to produce pressures of 4,000,000 volts, which was about the limit obtainable in my new laboratory at Houston Street, as the discharges extended through a distance of 16 feet. A photograph of this transmitter was published in the Electrical Review of November, 1898. 

儘管我知道,用大尺寸設備可以獲得更高的電動勢,但我本能地認為,通過對一個體積相對較小、結構緊湊的變壓器進行適當設計同樣可以達到這一目標。在使用平螺旋(flat spiral)繞組次級線圈進行實驗時,正如我在專利中說明的那樣,電子束沒有出現,這使我非常震驚。不久,我便發現,造成這一現象的原因是線圈II的位置及匝與匝之間的相互作用。根據這一發現,我重新使用了直徑較大的髙壓導體,保證匝間距充分抑制分佈電容,同時儘量防止任何位置出現電荷過分堆積。運用這一原理,我獲得了4百萬伏的電壓,這是在確保安全的前提下所能獲得的極限值189811月份的《電氣評論》(Electrical Review)刊登了一張我在休士頓街Houston Street實驗室製造的發射器照片。(下圖)

In order to advance further along this line I had to go into the open, and in the spring of 1899, having completed preparations for the erection of a wireless plant, I went to Colorado where I remained for more than one year. Here I introduced other improvements and refinements which made it possible to generate currents of any tension that may be desired. Those who are interested will find some information in regard to the experiments I conducted there in my article, "The Problem of Increasing Human Energy" in the Century Magazine of June, 1900, to which I have referred on a previous occasion. 

之後,我必須到戶外開闊空間進一步試驗。1899年春,在完成無線裝置建造準備工作之後,我去了科羅拉多Colorado)並且在那裡逗留了一年多的時間在那裡,我又進行了一些修改和完善,從而可以根據需要讓它產生任何強度的電流19006月,《世紀雜誌》(Century Magazine)刊登了我的一篇文章 — 《關於不斷增加的人類能量的問題》(The Problem of Increasing Human Energy),此前我已經提到過它。如果讀者對我在科羅拉多所做的試驗感興趣的話,可以參考這篇文章。

I have been asked by the ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER to be quite explicit on this subject so that my young friends among the readers of the magazine will clearly understand the construction and operation of my "Magnifying Transmitter" and the purposes for which it is intended. Well, then, in the first place, it is a resonant transformer with a secondary in which the parts, charged to a high potential, are of considerable area and arranged in space along ideal enveloping surfaces of very large radii of curvature, and at proper distances from one another thereby insuring a small electric surface density everywhere so that no leak can occur even if the conductor is bare. It is suitable for any frequency, from a few to many thousands of cycles per second, and can be used in the production of currents of tremendous volume and moderate pressure, or of smaller amperage and immense electromotive force. The maximum electric tension is merely dependent on the curvature of the surfaces on which the charged elements are situated and the area of the latter. 

由於電氣實驗者ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER)雜誌的要求,要我在這個問題上明確說明,我將詳細介紹一下我的放大變壓器Magnifying Transmitter),以便讀者能夠有個較為淸晰的認識。首先,它是一種帶有次級電路諧振變壓器resonant transformer次級電路中的元件具有很高的電勢,它們面積較大,沿著理想的、曲率半徑極大的包絡面enveloping surfaces)依次排列,彼此之間保持著適當的距離,從而可以確保任何地方具有很小的表面電荷密度。這樣,即使導體處於裸露狀態,也不會產生漏電現象這個放大變壓器適用於從每秒幾周到上萬周的任何頻率,可以用於生產電流量極大而電壓適中的電流,或者較小安培而電動勢極大的電流電壓的最大限度完全取決於充電元件所在的曲面曲率以及元件面積

Judging from my past experience, as much as 100,000,000 volts are perfectly practicable. On the other hand currents of many thousands of amperes may be obtained in the antenna. A plant of but very moderate dimensions is required for such performances. Theoretically, a terminal of less than 90 feet in diameter is sufficient to develop an electromotive force of that magnitude while for antenna currents of from 2,000-4,000 amperes at the usual frequencies it need not be larger than 30 feet in diameter. 

以我過去的經驗判斷,可能產生的電壓是沒有限制的,任何量級都是可以實現的。從另一方面來看,我們可以通過天線獲得數千安培的電流。為了實現這一目的,只需要一個尺寸適中的設備。從理論上說,一台直徑小於90英尺的終端設備就足以獲得這一量級的電動勢。相對而言,在正常頻率下,直徑不超過30英尺的天線便能獲得2000—4000安培的電流

In a more restricted meaning this wireless transmitter is one in which the Hertz-wave radiation is an entirely negligible quantity as compared with the whole energy, under which condition the damping factor is extremely small and an enormous charge is stored in the elevated capacity. Such a circuit may then be excited with impulses of any kind, even of low frequency and it will yield sinusoidal and continuous oscillations like those of an alternator. 

Taken in the narrowest significance of the term, however, it is a resonant transformer which, besides possessing these qualities, is accurately proportioned to fit the globe and its electrical constants and properties, by virtue of which design it becomes highly efficient and effective in the wireless transmission of energy. Distance is then absolutely eliminated, there being no diminution in the intensity of the transmitted impulses. It is even possible to make the actions increase with the distance from the plant according to an exact mathematical law. 

狹義上來講,在阻尼因數甚小,性能得到提升的電容器可以儲存大量電荷,這種無線發射器中的電磁波輻射就會很小,與整體能量相比完全可以忽略不計。這樣一種電路,可以用任何一種脈衝或者包括低頻脈衝來激發,並且可以像交流發電機一樣產生正弦連續振盪。然而,從最狹義的角度來講,這種無線發射器又是一個諧振變壓器,除了具有這些特性外,還能精確調整以適應地球的電常數和電學特性。通過這一設計,它就能極為高效、便捷地實現能量的無線傳輸。此時,距離徹底消除,被傳輸的脈衝強度也不會減弱。甚至,根據一項精確的數學定律,隨著到發射平面距離的增加,作用強度也會隨之增加

This invention was one of a number comprised in my "World-System" of wireless transmission which I undertook to commercialize on my return to New York in 1900. As to the immediate purposes of my enterprise, they were clearly outlined in a technical statement of that period from which I quote:

"The 'World-System' has resulted from a combination of several original discoveries made by the inventor in the course of long continued research and experimentation. It makes possible not only the instantaneous and precise wireless transmission of any kind of signals, messages or characters, to all parts of the world, but also the inter-connection of the existing telegraph, telephone, and other signal stations without any change in their present equipment. By its means, for instance, a telephone subscriber here may call up and talk to any other subscriber on the Globe. An inexpensive receiver, not bigger than a watch, will enable him to listen anywhere, on land or sea, to a speech delivered or music played in some other place, however distant. These examples are cited merely to give an idea of the possibilities of this great scientific advance, which annihilates distance and makes that perfect natural conductor, the Earth, available for all the innumerable purposes which human ingenuity has found for a line-wire. One far-reaching result of this is that any device capable of being operated thru one or more wires (at a distance obviously restricted) can likewise be actuated, without artificial conductors and with the same facility and accuracy, at distances to which there are no limits other than those imposed by the physical dimensions of the Globe. Thus, not only will entirely new fields for commercial exploitation be opened up by this ideal method of transmission but the old ones vastly extended. 

The 'World-System' is based on the application of the following important inventions and discoveries:

這項發明是我無線傳輸世界系統”系列發明中的一項,1900年返回紐約後,我便開始了對它的商業化運作。出於直接推動我的企業發展的目的,這些發明在當時編寫的一份技術聲明中有清晰的概述。現摘錄一部分如下:

 “世界系統World-System)是發明者本人經過長期持續的研究和試驗獲得的幾項獨創性發現的綜合成果。這個系統不僅可以通過無線傳輸方式瞬間精確地將任何類型的信號、資訊、文字傳遞到世界的任何一個角落,而且可以在不改動現有設備的情況下,實現現有電報、電話,以及其他信號網站之間的互通互聯。例如,通過它,當地的一個電話使用者可以呼叫地球上的任何一位電話使用者。利用成本不會髙於手錶的接收器,就可以讓用戶在陸地或者海上的任何地方接聽任何距離之外的講演或者音樂會。

引用這些實例只是為了讓讀者瞭解這項偉大科學發現的巨大應用前景,它完全消除了距離因素,並使地球這個完美的天然導體可以用於無限的用途,而且人們只需通過一根電線就可以實現。這一系統影響深遠的應用之一就是,在不需要附加人工導體,但又具有相同功能和精確度的前提下,只要不超過地球的物理空間限制,可以在任何距離,任何一個可以通過一根或多根電線操作的設備(顯然,電線的距離是有限的)都可以被激發使用。因此,通過這種理想的傳輸方法,不僅可以使商業活動獲得嶄新的開發空間,傳統應用也會得到巨大的改善和提高。世界系統”開發利用的基礎是下述重要發明和發現:

1. The 'Tesla Transformer.' This apparatus is in the production of electrical vibrations as revolutionary as gunpowder was in warfare. Currents many times stronger than any ever generated in the usual ways, and sparks over one hundred feet long, have been produced by the inventor with an instrument of this kind.

1. 特斯拉變壓器這個裝置是電磁振動領域的革命性發現,其重要意義堪比火藥對於戰爭的劃時代價值。發明家利用這一裝置產生的電流是普通技術手段產生電流的很多倍,並產生了一百多英尺的火花現象。

2. The 'Magnifying Transmitter.' This is Tesla's best invention, a peculiar transformer specially adapted to excite the Earth, which is in the transmission of electrical energy what the telescope is in astronomical observation. By the use of this marvelous device he has already set up electrical movements of greater intensity than those of lightning and passed a current, sufficient to light more than two hundred incandescent lamps, around the Globe.

2. 放大發射機這是特斯拉的最佳發明,是為了激發地球電磁場創造的一種特殊變壓器,用於電能傳輸,其傳輸距離必須使用天文級望遠鏡才能看到。通過使用這種神奇裝置,特斯拉本人已經實現了一種電力效應,其強度超過了閃電,通過的電流足以點亮環繞地球的200盞白熾燈。

3. The 'Tesla Wireless System.' This system comprises a number of improvements and is the only means known for transmitting economically electrical energy to a distance without wires. Careful tests and measurements in connection with an experimental station of great activity, erected by the inventor in Colorado, have demonstrated that power in any desired amount can be conveyed, clear across the Globe if necessary, with a loss not exceeding a few per cent.

3. 特斯拉無線系統該系統包含一系列新技術,是唯一以無線手段和低廉經濟成本遠距離傳輸電能的手段發明人在科羅拉多建立了試驗站,巳經通過仔細研究和測算證明,該系統可以傳輸任何規模的能量,而損失不會超過百分之幾

4. The 'Art of Individualization.' This invention of Tesla's is to primitive 'tuning' what refined language is to unarticulated expression. It makes possible the transmission of signals or messages absolutely secret and exclusive both in the active and passive aspect, that is, non-interfering as well as non-interferable. Each signal is like an individual of unmistakable identity and there is virtually no limit to the number of stations or instruments which can be simultaneously operated without the slightest mutual disturbance.

4. 個性化藝術:特斯拉的這個發明相對於原始調諧來說,就像精美發達的語言之於含混不清的表達那樣先進。它實現了信號或報文傳輸的絕對保密性,以及積極和被動方面的絕對排他性。也就是說,資訊傳輸人發出的信號毫無干擾,也不可能被其他人干擾每一個信號都像一個具有絕對明確身份的個人,在無任何哪怕是最微弱相互干擾的情況下,可以同時操作的信號站和設備數量是無限的

5. 'The Terrestrial Stationary Waves.' This wonderful discovery, popularly explained, means that the Earth is responsive to electrical vibrations of definite pitch just as a tuning fork to certain waves of sound. These particular electrical vibrations, capable of powerfully exciting the Globe, lend themselves to innumerable uses of great importance commercially and in many other respects.

The first 'World-System' power plant can be put in operation in nine months. With this power plant it will be practicable to attain electrical activities up to ten million horsepower and it is designed to serve for as many technical achievements as are possible without due expense. Among these the following may be mentioned:

5. 陸地駐波:這個偉大的發現,通俗一點兒來說,就是地球會對有限波長的電力振動作出反應,就跟音叉對音波做出反應是一個道理。這些電力震動強度很大,足可以激發地球的電磁場,對商業或很多其他領域有重要用途。第一世界系統”電站可以在九個月內投入運行。利用這個電站,我們可以獲得1千萬馬力的功率,可以非常低廉的成本為無數技術活動服務,包括:

 (1) The inter-connection of the existing telegraph exchanges or offices all over the world;

(2) The establishment of a secret and non-interferable government telegraph service;

(3) The inter-connection of all the present telephone exchanges or offices on the Globe;

(4) The universal distribution of general news, by telegraph or telephone, in connection with the Press;

(5) The establishment of such a 'World-System' of intelligence transmission for exclusive private use;

(6) The inter-connection and operation of all stock tickers of the world;

(7) The establishment of a 'World-System' of musical distribution, etc.;

(8) The universal registration of time by cheap clocks indicating the hour with astronomical precision and requiring no attention whatever;

(9) The world transmission of typed or handwritten characters, letters, checks, etc.;

(10) The establishment of a universal marine service enabling the navigators of all ships to steer perfectly without compass, to determine the exact location, hour and speed, to prevent collisions and disasters, etc.;

(11) The inauguration of a system of world-printing on land and sea;

(12) The world reproduction of photographic pictures and all kinds of drawings or records."

1) 世界上已有電報交換機或交換站之間的互聯互通;

2) 建立一種機密的,不受干擾的政府電報服務系統;

3) 世界上現有的電話局和電話站之間的互聯互通;

4) 利用電報或電話與新聞界連接,實現一般性新聞的廣泛傳遞;

5) 建立私人專用的情報傳遞世界系統”

6) 世界所有股票報價系統的互聯與操作;

7) 建立音樂廣播等用途的世界系統”

8) 利用成本低廉的普通時鐘,在不需要特別管理的前提下實現天文級精度時間的顯示;

9) 在全世界內傳遞列印或手寫字元、信件或支票等檔;

10) 建立世界航海服務系統,使輪船在沒有指南針的條件下,準確把握航向;準確測定船隻位置、時間和其他資訊;避免撞船或災難的發生;

11) 初步建立全世界的印刷系統;

12) 在全世界複製、傳送各種照片、圖像或記錄。我曾提議在小範圍內演展示無線電力傳輸技術,其效果令人信服。

I also proposed to make demonstrations in the wireless transmission of power on a small scale but sufficient to carry conviction. Besides these I referred to other and incomparably more important applications of my discoveries which will be disclosed at some future date. 

A plant was built on Long Island with a tower 187 feet high, having a spherical terminal about 68 feet in diameter. These dimensions were adequate for the transmission of virtually any amount of energy. Originally only from 200 to 300 K.W. were provided but I intended to employ later several thousand horsepower. The transmitter was to emit a wave complex of special characteristics and I had devised a unique method of telephonic control of any amount of energy. 

此外,在將來某個合適的時間,我將介紹我的發明在其他方面無比重要的應用。我們在長島Long Island)建了一座發電站,塔高187英尺,塔頂上有一個直徑68英尺的球形框架。所有這些尺寸適用於傳輸各種級別的能量。最初,我們只運用了200千瓦到300千瓦的功率,但以後會加大到幾千馬力。這個發射機將發射具有特殊性質的綜合波,我已經發明了一種特殊方法,利用電話控制任何形式的能量活動。兩年前(1917),試驗塔被破壞了,但是我的項目還在進行,另一個經過改進的試驗塔即將建成。

曾坐落於紐約長島沃登克里弗塔(Wardenclyffe Tower,又稱作特斯拉塔),
終究因為財務等多項因素未能完成,最終被拆除。(資料來源:維基百科)

The tower was destroyed two years ago but my projects are being developed and another one, improved in some features, will be constructed. On this occasion I would contradict the widely circulated report that the structure was demolished by the Government which owing to war conditions, might have created prejudice in the minds of those who may not know that the papers, which thirty years ago conferred upon me the honor of American citizenship, are always kept in a safe, while my orders, diplomas, degrees, gold medals and other distinctions are packed away in old trunks. If this report had a foundation I would have been refunded a large sum of money which I expended in the construction of the tower. On the contrary it was in the interest of the Government to preserve it, particularly as it would have made possible—to mention just one valuable result—the location of a submarine in any part of the world. My plant, services, and all my improvements have always been at the disposal of the officials and ever since the outbreak of the European conflict I have been working at a sacrifice on several inventions of mine relating to aerial navigation, ship propulsion and wireless transmission which are of the greatest importance to the country. Those who are well informed know that my ideas have revolutionized the industries of the United States and I am not aware that there lives an inventor who has been, in this respect, as fortunate as myself especially as regards the use of his improvements in the war. I have refrained from publicly expressing myself on this subject before as it seemed improper to dwell on personal matters while all the world was in dire trouble. 

在此,我希望澄清一個事實,此前廣泛流傳著一個謠言,說出於備戰考慮,政府拆毀了我的試驗塔。這一謠言會進一步加重某些人頭腦中的偏見,他們不知道政府授予我的美國公民檔三十年來一直被鎖在保險櫃裡。同時,政府為我頒發的嘉獎令、證書、學位、金質獎章和其他榮譽證明都被鎖在舊箱子裡。如果這個傳聞屬實的話,我將獲得一筆巨額賠償,因為為了建造這座試驗塔我投人了很多資金。正好相反,保護這個試驗塔,能更好地維護政府的利益。僅舉一例說明它的重要價值 — 用它,政府可以確定一艘潛艇在世界任何地方的位置。一直以來,官方都在利用我的設備、服務、所有發明改造。歐洲爆發戰爭以來,為了國家利益,我犧牲了這一項目的研究時間,全身心地投入了航空導航輪船動力無線傳輸等發明工作中,所有這些對於美國來說都是至關重要的。消息靈通的人士都知道,我的發明促進了美國眾多行業的革命性發展。在此方面來看,我還不知道有哪一位發明家能夠像我如此幸運,尤其是我的發明在美國國防事業中獲得了十分廣泛的應用。此前,我一直克制自己,不希望在這一問題上發表意見。當整個世界正面對嚴重危機時,如果過分關注個人利益,我認為是不合適的

I would add further, in view of various rumors which have reached me, that Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan did not interest himself with me in a business way but in the same large spirit in which he has assisted many other pioneers. He carried out his generous promise to the letter and it would have been most unreasonable to expect from him anything more. He had the highest regard for my attainments and gave me every evidence of his complete faith in my ability to ultimately achieve what I had set out to do. I am unwilling to accord to some smallminded and jealous individuals the satisfaction of having thwarted my efforts. These men are to me nothing more than microbes of a nasty disease. My project was retarded by laws of nature. The world was not prepared for it. It was too far ahead of time. But the same laws will prevail in the end and make it a triumphal success. 

關於針對我的眾多謠言,我還要再多說兩句。有人說,約翰.摩根先生(Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan)對資助我的研究活動不感興趣,而是幫助了很多其他專家。事實上,他非常慷慨地履行了所有對我資助的承諾。在這種情況下,如果對他提出更多要求,是不合情理的。他對我的發明成就表現出了極大的尊重,對我計畫中的發明專案也表現出了絕對的信任。我不會讓那些思想狹隘、充滿嫉妒心的人阻礙我的工作,絕不會讓他們的陰謀得逞。對於我來說,這些人就如導致可怕疾病的細菌那樣令人厭惡。我的專案只是在自然法則的作用下暫時推遲了,目前的世界還沒有做好迎接它的準備它遠遠超過了當前的時代,但自然法則終將獲勝,我的項目終將成功

(第五章結束 全文待續)


第四章 ▲回目錄

原文資料來源:http://www.institutotesla.org/NikolaTesla-MyInventions.html

中文翻譯編輯自:http://icaredbd.com:8079/sharebooks1/%E6%96%87%E5%AD%A6/%E4%BC%9F%E4%BA%BA%E4%BC%A0%E8%AE%B0/%E7%89%B9%E6%96%AF%E6%8B%89%E5%9B%9E%E5%BF%86%E5%BD%95%20%E8%A2%AB%E4%B8%96%E7%95%8C%E9%81%97%E5%BF%98%E7%9A%84%E5%A4%A9%E6%89%8D%20by%20%E5%B0%BC%E5%8F%A4%E6%8B%89-%E7%89%B9%E6%96%AF.pdf

 

 

 

創作者介紹
創作者 ONENESS 的頭像
ONENESS

浩瀚萬象(ONENESS)

ONENESS 發表在 痞客邦 留言(0) 人氣()